Responsive Spatial Conditioning
Architecture can be seen as human’s third skin which separate them from the outside world(or potentially could connect). The first first skin is their body skin which helps the process of metabolism, the second is their clothing and the third is the one that encloses the air-conditioned space. However, we can argue that if the zone of second skin be in the comfort zone(temperature and humidity), the rigid separation between inside and outside can break. In other words, the space of occupation only needs to be air conditioned. If we become able to make the architecture, which embeds the mechanism of air conditioning, responsive to the user’s occupation, then we can reduce energy consumption for conditioning the whole space.
Imagine sets of tubes that control the temperature. they are sensitive to human’s body magnetism and extend to reach the zone of user’s occupation in order to exchange heat and air. the liquid inside the tubes can create temperature gradiences.
The Metamorphic Capsule
In 1991, the Metamorphic Capsule was imagined by John Johansen as the “first construction whose form and space can be manipulated by use of electromagnets.” It’s basically an amorphous, magnetic fabric blob that can be repositioned by adjusting the surrounding electromagnetic armature. Now imagine that source electromagnetic is human; therefore, the space can be manipulated by presence of human. What if this amorphous space is also the heating and cooling resource and because of it attraction to human body transfers the heat faster.
Rather than trapping conditioned air inside insulated building envelop, is it possible to get advantage of the dynamicity of hot/cool air and place the occupiable spaces in between a channeling network of air flow that is a closed loop? Imagine a fan coil system network that is sensitive to human energy and pushes air out where the user steps. The other part of channel sucks the air in and whether store it or channel it to other occupied spaces. The fans inside the channels help pushing air out and pulling air in.
One of the inspiring devices that I have faced is Bladeless Fan that has a small fan embedded in its lower part which sucks the air in and channel it out through the circular tube and smoothly pushes the air out. This system could be taken further and be applied to a bigger channeling network. To achieve the main purpose, which has been bluring the boundary between interiority and exteriority, there can be other architectural/mechanical techniques which regulate the temperature as the user pass through.
Using Furnace and duct network is another way to bring the interiors’ temperature to the comfort zone. Ducts position as another layer beneath the structural layer. There is potential to merge these two layer; for example, ducts can expand and function as slabs.
Sensory Air Conditioning
To reduce consumption of energy, today, the lights that have sensors and automatically turn on and off by presence of users are common-place. This idea might be applicable to air conditioners too.
Fluid Air Conditioning
Do we really need to enclose the interiors tightly in order to air-condition it? Dose every spot of interior space need air conditioning? If the zone where the user is be conditioned, we do not really need to trap the air inside the envelope. If we create the possibility to circulate the conditioned air in the spot of occupation; we can break the envelop and remove this rigid separation between inside and outside. Imagine if the conditioned air is stored inside the slabs( flooring and ceiling) and the sliding tiles follow the user and open up to push and pull the air to maintain their path in the comfort zone.
The flooring, the ceiling, the furniture all can be part of the automated system which are permeable and conditionally circulate the air.
Flexible-Permeable Floor Finish
Rather than sliding tiles, more flexible material like feather can be substituted and carry out the idea of permeability.
Radiant Heating and Cooling System as Architecture
How many layers of architecture can merge to target for creating occupiable spaces? How convection, conduction and radiation can be used as methods to create gradient territories for different purposes? can Radiant heating and cooling system become the architecture itself? How material can facilitate absorption, storing and conducting heat?
An Architecture Without Skin
As mentioned in the previous posts, our modern architecture has got distanced from its exterior environment by thick layers of construction. Also, in contrast to the primary human life, the living spaces are predetermined and territorialized for specific uses; in other words, the user is not given freedom to wonder around and occupy the space the way they want. What if the tubes used for radiant heating and cooling becomes the architecture without the need for thick separation between inside and outside? the density of the tubes determine how hot/cold the space is and create occupiable spaces without specific predetermination.
Tube Density & Temperature Grediance
Do we really need to heat all the interior spaces? what if the density of tubes and volume of water passing in the tubes, and the position of spaces around the circulating water create a gradientce of temperature? Can the exterior shell emerge from the tube system creating the interior spaces that also function as furniture?
Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
The Materialities and functions of the tubes should be precisely studied and understood. To reduce the consumption of energy, can we exploit solar energy with evacuated tube solar collectors? How can we manage absorption, conduction, convection and storage of heat through their materiality based on their use in specific spaces?
Heat Loss and Required Tempreture
As heated liquid circulates through the tubes it losses energy and the temperature changes in different zones; how this feature can impact the organization of spaces?
Turquoise Domes: Empty Monuments
In old days when Islam entered Iran, Iranians had religious tendencies and old kingdoms developed many worship spots (like mosques and monuments) in the main cities. After National Revolution of Iran in 1979 Islam became an important part of politics and Mosques became like political power monuments. The mixture of politics and religion and, in fact, using religion (as people’s belief system) to apply power on people and ignoring their citizenship rights have made a large number of people far from religion sanctities. While current generations avoid going to the mosques, Iranian government are insisting on building more and more mosques as public spaces! In the cityscape,Turquoise domes have become the power monuments of Islamic republic empty of people rather than public places that welcome citizens.
Some important mosques and monuments are surrounded by bazaars and commerce attracting people not for religious purposes but for shopping.
Using Islamic Design to Challenge Islamic Monuments (Sou Fujimoto Design for Doha)
Strict religious rules for Mosques’ entrants and lack of tendency of citizens for participating in political-religious activities in mosques have made these structures like voids in the cityscape. While there are still numerous architectural firms being charged to design new mosques, how architecture can challenge the current Islamic design rules and invent new design solutions to develop these territories as real public spaces for citizens for other uses than only religious activities. How Islamic architecture that is rigidly territorialized can be blend to the rest of city providing indoor-outdoor public uses?
Challenging the Rules for Occupants
How architecture can challenge the current strict rules for entrants and improve the right of citizenship for occupying such spaces? This design solution for Modern Pristina Central Mosque shows how rigid division between males and females (which is one of the islamic rules for mosques) is challenged.
Islamic Architectural Elements Improving Citizenship Rights for Public Space
Now that Islamic Republic of Iran spends millions of dollars and occupies hectares of lands for constructing new mosques, how architecture can improve basic citizenship rights in public spaces through constructing mosques? How Islamic design elements like dome and minarets can provide public spaces for people which escape strict rules? For example, how can they reduce exposure and access of committee agents who control people’s dressing?
Junk layer_Venice Biennale 2014
Our conditioned spaces are wrapped inside a thick layer of junk spaces filled by mechanical equipment. This thick layer has separated the interior spaces and exterior spaces completely. in our intensely built modern environment, we has lost our relationship with landscape. Is it possible to marge different layers into one and make these layers thinner; in order to reconnect to landscape?
House, A Highly Controlled Environment
Moreover,interior spaces, similar to urban spaces, are highly controlled. In other words, it is the architect or the urban designer who decides how those spaces should be used. However, if we look at primitive human living, it was nature which controlled the living environments and human had freedom to occupy and use spaces the way they wanted. how conditioning the space like nature can create different smooth territories giving the user freedom to occupy the space the way they want?
Deterritorialazation: Smooth Spaces
How temperature, humidity, air velocity can replace the thick walls dividing the space.How energy can assist architecture to reduce the physicality of space which brings the user under high control?
How structure and mechanical equipment which occupy noticeable amount of space can merge together and make the layer, which separates interior spaces from landscape/cityscape, thinner?
Do we really need to hide all the elements used in HVAC? what if they become part of enclosure medium which also add aesthetic to the space. Moreover, exposing elements like water can balance the space’s temperature.
Transformative Recreational Building
Deterritorialization and reterritorialization of public platforms for producing potentials for different uses and activities.
Platforms with different heights and sizes have potential to be used differently. imagine that this pixelated space typology can be multiplied and expand both vertically and horizontally. It can develop among skyscrapers and add to public green open/enclosed spaces.
Air Conditioner, Venice Biennale
How physicality of this transformable structures can create potentials for energy flow and conditioning the spaces? In other words, How smooth spaces created by invisible gradient borders of air velocity can blend these pixelated, strait territories?
Creating Air Flow_ Venice Biennale
These two plates can create air velocity. By keeping the lower plate hot and the upper plate cold, they can create air flow.
How this system could be applied to the architectural platforms? how physicality impact flow of air? how generation of different programs on each platform can be influenced by this system?
The adjustable pixels can create different degrees of privacy and affect air velocity which allows for occupation for different programs. Public events, indoor/outdoor yoga, picnicking and other recreational uses can be applied to the spaces. It is about the relationship between landscape and interior ; how landscape can create interiors? How interiors blend into the landscape?
There are rigid separations between interior and exterior spaces. The barriers function for: 1-protecting privacy, 2-protecting the conditioned interior spaces. However, do we really need this degree of privacy? do we really need to territorialize our daily inhabitation spaces so rigidly? What if conditioning the spaces becomes part of this enclosuring system and blends the separation between interior and exterior? What if the exterior spaces become conditioned? In other words, is it possible that conditioning blend this rigid separation?
How can we develop modern cityscapes in a way to challenge notion of interiority. How conditioning exterior spaces can extend and fade the barriers of interior spaces? Can activities inside the cubic skyscrapers pass their rigid borders and extend outside?
exterior conditioned space outside the building barrier
Conditioning The Space and Creating Space
Instead of creating rigid physical boundaries (strait spaces) can we create gradient territories(smooth spaces) which are indetermined and transformative?? How energy, tempreture and mist can create smooth territories that are flexible for desired public uses? How territoralizing urban spaces with different degrees of temperature and humidity can create different climatic conditions appropriate for specific greenery and particular uses?
Conditioning The Space and Creating Space
Different Air Conditions, Different Greenery, Different Activities
Temperature, humidity, air velocity can generate gradient territories which have potential for different uses and activities.
Scale has a profound role in determining the degree of intimacy among the occupants. How physical and sensual borders can create the sense of intimacy?
Big scale public spaces, on the other hand, increase the sense of individuality among the occupants
Iran Territory in CE224-640
This is map of Iran under Sasanid Dynasty; (CE224-640). The territory of Iran used to stretch underneath Persian Gulf and cover the current Arab nations bordering it.
This is the map of current Iran. During later Iranian kingdoms, the regions in the southern part of Persian Gulf gained independence and the territory of Iran shrank.
Elimination of the Name “Persian” From “Persian Gulf”.
A historical map of the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum, United Arab Emirates. The word “Persian” is erased from the “Persian Gulf” phrase on the map. Before Arab Nationalism, the name “Persian Gulf was printed on almost all the maps and documents. However, After Arab nations become independent they started using Arabian Gulf. However, it has been proven that the name “Persian Gulf” has a long history and the gulf is being recognized as “Persian Gulf ” internationally.
Various Islands with Various Values
There are various islands in the gulf that are considered valuable from different perspective. some of them are being used for oil extraction. Some of them have distinct ecosystem. Also, because of their sensitive geographical position, some of them are being used for militarian purposes. Among them, there are islands that have historical values.
Arab Nations Claiming The Islands
After Arab Nationalism , Arab countries bordering the Persian Gulf also claimed some of the islands. There is still dispute between Iran and Arab countries for the ownership of a few islands.
Arab Nations Expanding their Territories with Artificial Islands
Arab nations have also constructed artificial islands and expanded their territory in Persian Gulf.
The Territory of Iran has been contracting since long time ago. Still, most of its borders are in the danger of separation due to the friction between the government and ethnic minorities.
The western-southern border of Iran is Persian Gulf which has been claimed by Arabs. What architectural or urbanistic response can highlight Iranian ownership of this water and save its borders? While Arab countries are expanding their territories by artificial islands, how Iran can preserve its territories and emphasize its ownership?
Invention of Elevators Added Vertical Axis to the Cities
As Rem Koolhaas has argued, the invention of elevators has let the cities to grow in vertical axis. This verticality in modern cityscapes has removed the connection of the higher levels from their site, their landscape. However, it has created other opportunities in the voids among the towers.
Potential for Expansion in other Axis
The adjacent highrises in the downtown have potential to develop new connections with each other. The neighbors of two towers might see each other everyday from their units without being able to have closer contact.
Embarcadero, A New Relationship Between the Adjacent Towers
San Francisco has always been interested in developing public spaces in the cityscape. Embarcadero is a good example which spans among the towers in the downtown creating an elevated connection among them. However, Due to lack of easy and visible accesses both from the street and from the towers the project has not been very successful.
POPOs Elevated Landscapes
The other example for expanding public spaces above the ground are roof-garden POPOs. However, due to lack of easy access to these spaces(the only access is from the street, passing the building security and reception), they have not been very successful.
Market Street, Focus of New Developments
Due to high population density of San Francisco, there are several new projects going on which are mostly housing. Market street, especially the area which has been deactivated for a long time, is targeted for new projects.
Expansion of Units in Existing Buildings
The city planning department has also considered expansion of units in existing buildings.
San Francisco is architecturally a conservative city which has also intention for expansion. The city administration is interested and flexible in applying the ideas and strategies that liven the city. In this thesis, I am targeting to look for urban strategies that can exploit the spatial opportunities among the towers in downtown. As invention of elevator expand the cityscape vertically, what other technique can expand the city in the void spaces among the towers? How the city can expand in other dimensions which can fulfill the intention of livening the city through better connectivity?