Niagara Falls

Importance of Tourism in Niagara Waterfall

Since 18th century, tourism became popular, and by mid-century, it was the area's main industry.
Since 18th century, tourism became popular, and by mid-century, it was the area’s main industry.

Niagara Falls on the Border

Niagara Falls define the US-Canada border. However, this natural incident, which has formed about 10000 years ago is ever-changing and this has been causing dispute between two countries.
Niagara Falls define the US-Canada border. However, this natural incident, which has formed about 10000 years ago is ever-changing and this has been causing dispute between two countries.

Tourism Attraction and Urban Development

 The cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada and Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A. are connected by two international bridges. Being an important tourism place, many businesses and urban development has formed around the waterfall.
The cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada and Niagara Falls, New York, U.S.A. are connected by two international bridges. Being an important tourism place, many businesses and urban development has formed around the waterfall.

Conservation and Tourism improvement

Niagara Falls became a great resource of energy production and commercial development while there was a limited access for public to its great sceneries.  Therefore, through a movement called "Free Niagara", Frederick Law Olmsted was commissioned to design a Niagara Falls State Park. Their design intention was "to restore and conserve the natural surroundings of the Falls of Niagara, rather than to attempt to add anything thereto".  They were looking for ways to preserve the nature and beauty of the Falls while improve public access; ways to stop and  man-made damages and restore its natural landscapes."They planned a park with scenic roadways, paths and a few shelters designed to protect the landscape while allowing large numbers of visitors to enjoy the falls."
Niagara Falls became a great resource of energy production and commercial development while there was a limited access for public to its great sceneries.
Therefore, through a movement called “Free Niagara”, Frederick Law Olmsted was commissioned to design the  Niagara Falls State Park. The design intention was “to restore and conserve the natural surroundings of the Falls of Niagara, rather than to attempt to add anything thereto”. They were looking for ways to preserve the nature and beauty of the Falls while improve public access; ways to stop and man-made damages and restore its natural landscapes.”They planned a park with scenic roadways, paths and a few shelters designed to protect the landscape while allowing large numbers of visitors to enjoy the falls.”

Human Interaction With The Falls

Since long ago, the beauty and grandeur of Niagara Waterfalls has attract visitors'attention and interest to experience the falls in other ways than mere observation.  Jumps and plunges within barrels, walking on wire crossing the waterfall became popular among some who even risked their lives for this experience.
Since long ago, the beauty and grandeur of Niagara Waterfalls has attracted visitors’attention and interest to experience the falls in other ways than mere observation. Jumps and plunges within barrels, walking on wire crossing the waterfall became popular among some who even risked their lives for this experience.

Wire-Walking over Niagara Gorge

The desire to experience this nature led to creation of spanned machines passing over the river.
The desire to experience this nature led to creation of spanned machines passing over the river.
Experiencing the waterfall from the river.
Experiencing the waterfall from the river.

Changing Nature

This ever-changing nature gains a completely  different form in winter providing a different experience.
This ever-changing nature gains a completely different form in winter providing a different experience.

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How architecture can deal with this wild nature and without destroying its purity create opportunities for this manifold experience. How tourism can be improved without damaging their nature. How architecture, technology and nature can cooperate to produce occupiable  spaces in different points of Niagara waterfall while preserving it?

Iran-Pakistan Border

 

 

Baloch Community Division
Baloch Community Division

Iran has been erecting a wall along the Iran-Pakistan border to stop illegal border crossings. However, the two countries share the territory of Balochistan. Therefor, Baloch “community has become divided politically and socially, with their trade and social activities being seriously impeded”.

Smuggling Drugs From Pakistan to Iran
Smuggling Drugs From Pakistan to Iran

The major percentage of drugs entering Iran is being smuggled from Iran-Pakistan and Iran-Afghanistan borders. These two country used to be part of Iran in the past; therefore, there are strong cultural, linguistic and religious connection between them. However, the thick barrier, which is constructed by and within territory of current Iran has completely separated these regions.

Heroin Being Spread in Europe from Afghanistan Crossing Iran
Heroin Being Spread in Europe from Afghanistan Crossing Iran

Afghanistan is the main producer of Heroin spreading it to the Europe. There are two main routes from which the drugs flow westward. Iran is on the way of one of the routes; therefore, its borders have inevitable role in blocking the spread of drugs.

Iran Pakistan Border Aerial Photo

Iran-Pakistan border aerial view

The Bed of Seasonal River Interrupting the Wall
The Bed of Seasonal River Interrupting the Wall

The erected wall between Iran and Pakistan only interrupts in two spots; One the only border crossing check post in Taftan, Balochistan, Iran and a seasonal river bed which is shown above.

The Only Legal Border Crossing From Pakistan to Iran
The Only Legal Border Crossing From Pakistan to Iran

The only legal border crossing is located in Taftan a region in Balochistan, Iran that is divided between the two countries. Random shots in different days show different amount of traffic in the check post line.  Heavy traffic in some days may create “loopholes  for smuggling contraband or people.”

Mountainous Topography
Mountainous Topography

Taftan has a mountainous topography. it has hard windy winters. there is a hiking track reaching to Taftan pick.

Walling Borders is a common strategy to strengthen the division between two countries. These Barriers usually separate specific regions into two parts which cause separation of interdependent communities. In my thesis I want to look for other architectural strategies that can control the flow at the same time blend(?!!) the borders. For instance, Panopticism is an architectural strategy to control the prisoners by creating perceptional errors. What architectural strategy can mislead the illegal movement flow at the same time fade the division between the communities?